This splitting is done right-to-left, with bigger fragments at the right (higher addresses) and smaller fragments at the left (lower addresses). These binary fragments are put on the freelists where they are available for subsequent allocation. In order to prevent them from being merged with (part of) the N-byte object, they are marked as having a maximum permissible size equal to their actual size when they are first created. They may be subsequently split further but they cannot be merged to a larger size until their maximum permissible size is changed.
When an object is released, it is similarly decomposed into binary fragments, and each of these fragments put onto the freelists and merged with free buddies. This time the decomposition works from right to left but with smaller binary fragments at the right and larger ones at the left.
When freeing an object, if its buddy is to its right (at a higher address) and is not free, then the buddy's maximum permissible size is set to the freed object's maximum permissible size. This indicates that when the buddy is subsequently freed, it may be merged to a higher size. This strategy is sufficient to guarantee that all released objects will be coalesced with their buddies regardless of the order in which they are deallocated.
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